The Challenges of Adaptation: Composite Characters and Abandoned Storylines

Despite the incredible production values and fidelity to the text that is remarkable in HBO’s Game of Thrones, the limitations of an adaptation from the textual medium to the cinematic demand practical considerations and compromises. George R. R. Martin can craft a lord’s bannermen in A Song of Ice and Fire with half a paragraph, offering characterization, pedigree, ties of kinship and vassalage, physical appearance, armament and house sigils in less than a page.

While a richly woven tapestry of characters and their families is absolutely authentic to the medieval setting, HBO must effectively navigate the waters of Doomed Valyria in a visual and audio medium with time constraints on episodes, actors cast for roles, costuming departments and set locations. The brilliantly animated opening for each episode may include and account for geographic setting by touring King’s Landing, Harrenhal or Riverrun, but it would be unreasonable to expect similar narrative focus on Raventree, Stone Hedge, Seagard or Maidenpool when they could be referenced or omitted in dialogue. This also applies to characters, and often results in abandoned storylines as they intersect and overlap with composite characters.

Additionally, as an ongoing series adapting uncompleted novels the importance of many characters and storylines may wax and wane in the narrative. Fans informed by events in the novels may notice that scenes are eliminated from the show only for exposition in a later season to reveal that they occurred off-screen, such as the Battle of Stone Mill and the lords of the Trident pledging themselves to the King of the North. By contrast, scenes from the novels recounted with character exposition may be adapted for the screen, such as the Battle of Oxcross.

The uncertainty of what will be retroactively admitted into the adaptation canon confounds identification of storylines that have been abandoned instead of delayed.

Consideration must also be allowed for the adaptation of the plot tailored for individual characters. While Bran Stark and Daenerys Targaryen have plot arcs that have advanced to the events of A Dance with Dragons, the plot for characters such as Jon Snow and Sam Tarly demand more narrative attention and have yet to progress beyond A Storm of Swords. The third season and fourth season consciously attempt to allocate events from the third novel, but the omission of many characters and elements has been a constant and necessary act of mediation between mediums.

Another effect of the uniform armour and costuming of the soldiers and guardsmen to each Great House is, naturally, of uniformity. Lannister guardsmen with their ornamental lion helms are faceless men, but unlike the Faceless Men of Braavos they rarely make an impression that lasts more than an episode. By contrast, A Song of ice and Fire is littered with lords attended by swarms of kinsmen and bannermen, each with their own named retainers and sworn kinsmen or sellswords and a sea of personal banners in a rich display of bastard feudalism. Scenes from the HBO adaptation are staffed by anonymous guardsmen in standard-issue armour, a practical consideration that unfortunately sacrifices the texture of Martin’s novels.

At Tywin Lannister’s war council after he learns of Jaime’s capture at the Whispering Wood readers are familiarized with the notable lords that are present, along with their heraldry and ancestral seats. In the adaptation, there is a visible delineation to the western lords, and many of the northern lords that acclaim Robb Stark as king directly correspond to many of the bannermen in the novels.1

However, as early as the second season HBO has begun eliminating extraneous characters and their subplots from the over-arcing narrative, for example in Catelyn’s mission to Renly, or Stannis’ fleet at the Battle of the Blackwater.2 The conflict between the lords of the Reach, storm lords and lords of the Narrow Sea is glossed over and the conflicts are internalized or simplified in exchanges between Davos Seaworth and Stannis Baratheon.

In many ways this is natural considering the medium of adaptation, and the HBO series has already recast several characters or else excised them from the plot due to contract issues or actor availability, such as Greatjon Umber or Gregor Clegane. The signature armour of soldiers sworn to Casterly Rock, Winterfell or Dragonstone reduces them to extras and wildly distinct from named characters, and minor characters are distinguished onscreen with bared faces, such as Amory Lorch or Jaqen H’ghar.

In the HBO series when Stannis Baratheon routs King-Beyond-The-Wall Mance Rayder’s host his army is rank upon rank of identically helmed and armoured horsemen, whereas readers learn page by page to distinguish between the lords of the Reach from those of the stormlands, or lords of the Trident from the North. The focus remains on the characters, with the ornament of medieval retainers rejected as extraneous to the storyline.

The Knight of Flowers


As with many of the Great Houses, the Tyrells are distilled and simplified in the interests of a streamlined adaptation, and Loras Tyrell is an excellent example of a composite character. Elder brothers Willas and Garlan Tyrell are eliminated from the narrative, and Willas’ plotline integrated with Loras Tyrell’s. Crippled in a tournament by Oberyn Martell, Willas is the heir to Highgarden, and in the novels successively Sansa Stark’s and Cersei Lannister’s intended husband. Ser Garlan the Gallant is a knight noted for his courtesy and for donning Renly’s armour at the Battle of the Blackwater, spurring Stannis’ superstitious stormland knights and men-at-arms to rout.3

In the HBO adaptation, Loras is explicitly stated to be the sole son and heir to Highgarden and the Tyrell dynasty. The elimination of Garlan also disposes of Melisandre’s visions predicting Renly’s victory at King’s Landing, which drove his strategy in the novel.4 Loras’ induction into the Kingsguard is rendered as a threat by Tywin Lannister, a counterplot when matriarch Olenna Tyrell intrigues to marry him to Sansa Stark. At the conclusion of A Clash of Kings, Loras joined Joffrey’s Kingsguard as one of the boons the Tyrells requested of their newly recognized king.5 Within the HBO adaptation, not only are the Tyrells resistant to Loras joining the Kingsguard, the threat is sufficient leverage to coerce Olenna to concede to a marriage contract with Cersei.6

Likewise, while in the novels Tywin’s proposed political marriage between Cersei and Willas is rejected by Mace Tyrell at the direction of Olenna, the HBO adaptation innovates a subplot focusing on the Byzantine quality to the dynastic union of their houses in a reflection of medievalism.7

Additionally, the dramatic tension as Cersei vacillates between obedience and defiance to her father as the Lannister patriarch persists to the fourth season finale.

The Tower of Joy


The omission of Ned Stark’s dream sequences recounting the death of his sister Lyanna is the most significant deletion in the adaptation of the first novel.8 While Bran’s companions have played a pivotal role in his plot arc, little attention has been paid to Howland Reed, their father and the only living survivor of the final stand of Aerys Targaryen’s Kingsguard. While the Lord of Greywater Watch may well be introduced in future novels and seasons of the HBO series, the brief interlude at Moat Cailin and scant reference to the crannogmen of the Neck suggest that in the interests of time and simplicity HBO writers may be satisfied with Meera Reed to deliver second-hand exposition at a later date on the Tower of Joy or The Knight of the Laughing Tree.9

Freys of the Crossing in the North and West

While Catelyn accepted a marriage contract for her son at the Twins, she also agreed to foster two of Walder Frey’s sons, both named for their father.10 Called Big and Little Walder, the two arrive at Winterfell and join Bran’s household and are initially nothing more than a source of minor irritation.11 Eventually, they are captured by the Bastard of the Dreadfort and squire for him in turn. The deletion of the Walders extends to Robb Stark’s army, and his forces in the novels were augmented by knights from the Twins that included Sers Stevron, Ryman, Edwin and Black Walder Frey. The early familiarization with these characters was instrumental in establishing a future storyline as they are opposed by the Brotherhood Without Banners.

Lord and Lady Hornwood

Northern politics were simplified in the HBO series for understandable reasons, and perhaps as an expression of the particular medievalism romanticizing a North ruled justly by kinsmen honouring oaths of loyalty. Robb Stark’s celebrated victories in the riverlands and westerlands nonetheless produced a mounting list of casualties among the Northern lords and nobility, destabilizing the political landscape of the north. Among these were Lord Hornwood and his only trueborn son and heir. The neighbouring lords began paying Lady Donella suit since marrying the widow of Hornwood was a legitimate route to claiming rights to her lands. But Ramsay, as Roose Bolton says in the adaptation, has his own way of doing things.

“Roose Bolton’s bastard had started it by seizing Lady Hornwood as she returned from the harvest feast, marrying her that very night even though he was young enough to be her son. Then Lord Mandlery had taken her castle. To protect the Hornwood holdings from the Bolton he had written, but Ser Rodrik had been almost as angry with him as the bastard.”12

Rodrik rode to arrest Ramsay Snow, but arrived too late to rescue Lady Hornwood.

“After their wedding, the Bastard had locked her in a tower and neglected to feed her. In the meantime we have Manderly knights and Dreadfort men killing one another in the Hornwood forests, and I lack the strength to stop them.”13

The chaos in Robb’s absence demonstrates a much less appealing culture than the romanticized north of the HBO adaptation, where the greatest difficulties Bran and Maester Luwin had to resolve were a dearth of masons and a home for orphan boys.

Within the novels, Ramsay Snow is introduced early in The Clash of Kings as a disreputable and dangerous vassal to the Starks. While his vicious characterization is amply indulged over the course of the third and fourth seasons of the HBO adaptation, his abduction, marriage and horrifying imprisonment of Lady Hornwood constitutes an abandoned storyline that informed further Bolton treachery.

Dagmer Cleftjaw, Aeron Damphair and Reek

With the excision of the Ramsay-Reek subplot Theon’s plot arc of vulnerability to manipulation is maintained as the disguised Ramsay’s murderous advice is appended to the character of Dagmer Cleftjaw. While Theon remembers him affectionately as an uncle,14 in the HBO series he is clearly a stranger and wily veteran. In the novels he is also accompanied by his uncle, a fanatic priest of the Iron Isles. “Uncle Aeron was relentless. ‘When he spits on you, he spits on all of us. He spits on the Drowned God. He must die.’”15  In this HBO adaptation Dagmer offers this rationale to justify the execution of Winterfell’s castellan, suggesting that Dagmer is a composite character for Reek and Aeron despite being named for a canonical character in A Song of Ice and Fire.

And while in the novels Theon orders the diversionary attack on Torrhen’s Square, in the series the plan originates with Dagmer, further undermining Theon’s credibility and intelligence in favour of insecurity.16 As Dagmer clearly begins slyly manipulating his captain, he also suggests murdering the miller’s boys when they are unable to recapture Bran and Rickon,17 originally the advice of the disguised Ramsay.

Effectively, the villainy that had been associated with the Boltons of the Dreadfort is attributed to the ironborn, and the developments of the third season are proportionately more dramatic as a result.

Locke and the Brave Companions
One storyline completely abandoned in HBO’s adaptation is that of the Bloody Mummers, the murderous band of sellswords that call themselves the Brave Companions. Originally hired by Tywin Lannister for his campaign in the riverlands, at various points they are encountered by Arya, Jaime, Brienne in the riverlands. While Vargo Hoat originally took Jaime’s sword hand as a trophy, in the novels it is Roose Bolton’s “best hunter”, Locke. Whether Locke belongs to the noble house of Locke sworn to the Starks is unclear, but his allegiance to Roose Bolton is consistent with Vargo Hoat, the opportunistic and sadistic mercenary captain that deserted the Lannisters to serve Roose Bolton.18

In the HBO series, Rorge and Biter are offhandedly dispatched by the Hound,19 while Locke is brutally slain when Bran wargs into Hodor.20 Locke was named castellan of Harrenhal by Roose Bolton much as Vargo Hoat was in the novels,21 but with the conclusion of Tyrion’s judicial combat suggest that storylines involving the war in the riverlands have been abandoned as well. Disgraced former-Maester Qyburn was originally one of the Bloody Mummers, and the HBO series very specifically ensured that his character was inserted into the narrative at Harrenhal to doctor Jaime and travel to King‘s Landing.

Brienne and Podrick’s storyline in the riverlands has not conclusively been abandoned, but similar scenes were adapted in earlier seasons and recast as confrontations with Stark soldiers instead of Brave Companions.22

The Florents of Brightwater Keep

Stannis Baratheon’s characterization is significantly more rigid in the HBO adaptation, and his only named advisors are Davos Seaworth and Melisandre. The novels explore the feudal politics of the stormlands and the Reach as lords do homage alternately to Renly, Stannis, Joffrey and Tommen depending on their waxing and waning fortunes in the War of Five Kings.

Foremost among them are the Florents of Brightwater Keep, rival lords to the Tyrells of Highgarden and kin to Stannis by virtue of his marriage to Selyse. Whereas in the HBO series Stannis immediately appoints Davos admiral of the fleet for the doomed attack on King’s Landing, the novels demonstrated Stannis’ reluctant compromise with hitherto rebellious vassals by appointing them to prestigious offices in the interests of feudal politics.

“Davos saw looks that passed between the lords as he rode past them to join the king. These were no onion knights, but proud men from houses whose names were old in honour.”23

In the novels, Ser Imry Florent was the admiral to Stannis’ fleet in the attack on King’s Landing, and his recklessness resulted in disaster when the combination of wildfire and Tyrion’s harbour chain were unveiled.24 Lord Alester Florent served as Stannis’ hand when Davos was lost at sea, only to be imprisoned for treason and sacrificed by Melisandre.25 Ser Axell Florent may yet be revealed in future seasons of the HBO series as the ambitious and self-serving uncle and advisor to Selyse. By shifting and simplifying these conflicts and emphasizing Stannis’ admirable faith in his Onion Knight, the calamity of the attack on King’s Landing is recast as inexorable fate instead of tragedy informed by nepotism and an entrenched aristocratic system.

Princess Shireen

HBO’s Shireen Baratheon is a much more complex character than her counterpart from the novels. Bold, clever and defiant to both her mother and Melisandre, she is not only an adapted character but a composite character.

When Maester Cressen died as he attempted to poison Melisandre in the novels he was replaced by his assistant, the younger Maester Pylos. After surviving the Battle of the Blackwater Pylos tutored Davos in reading, writing and history along with his son Devan Seaworth, the Princess Shireen, and Robert’s royal bastard Edric Storm.26 In the HBO series Shireen adopts Pylos’ role as she teaches Davos to read.27

With the deletion of Patchface from the adaptation, Dragonstone is presented as an even more isolated and backwater fortress that despite the setting offer charming scenes focusing on the relationship between the princess and Hand of the King.

Matthos Seaworth

In the novels Davos Seaworth, Onion Knight and Lord of the Rainwood had fathered seven trueborn sons. Four of them fought and died in Stannis Baratheon’s fleet at the Blackwater. The youngest two are with his wife, presumably at their keep in the stormlands while the last, Devan Seaworth, is one of Stannis’ squires and an adherent of R’hllor. In the HBO series Davos is presented as having only one son, Matthos, one of his crewmen as he sails into Blackwater Bay and a worshipper of the Lord of Light like Melisandre and Stannis’ queen Selyse. In his conversations with Gendry, he only mentions his son Matthos.28
The effect of Matthos’ death is deeper as the death of his only child, and the paternal affection he demonstrates with Shireen in later episodes might be informed by this loss.

Gendry Waters

With the omission of the Storm’s End subplot, the character Edric Storm is similarly absent in the HBO adaptation. As Melisandre seeks him out for a ritual sacrifice, Gendry is a composite character for two of Robert’s royal bastards and as is so often the case, composite characters intersect with abandoned storylines. Melisandre only births one shadow baby to murder Renly without need for a second to accomplish the assassination castellan Cortney Penrose, in the novels to secure the surrender of Storm’s End.29 Davos ensures Gendry’s escape without his allies among Stannis’ loyalists, eliminating another storyline as Davos discerns between the factions of queen’s men and king’s men that have transformed Stannis’ army into divided camps.30

Melisandre and the Ghost of High Heart

The HBO adaptation has also excised many of the prophecies and visions that serve to foreshadow key events in the novels, as well as the seers that offer them. One of these is familiar to the Brotherhood Without Banners, known to Arya as the Ghost of High Heart. After delivering cryptic prophecy that alludes to the Red Wedding, she singles out Arya. “The dwarf woman studied her with dim red eyes. ‘I see you,’ she whispered. ‘I see you, wolf child. Blood child. I thought it was the lord that smelled of death.”31

Even though her time with the outlaws is cut short in the third season, there is an interesting interlude between Arya and the Red Priestess when arrives to ransom Gendry. Melisandre is an established wielder of sorcery and clairvoyance in the HBO canon, and the words are just as chilling when issuing from her mouth.32

The Brotherhood Without Banners and Thoros of Myr

In the novels Arya, Gendry and Hot Pie are captured by Tom of Sevenstreams, Lem Lemoncloak and Anguy the Archer33. Thoros is depicted in the adaptation as tall, swaggering and singing, successfully uniting the characterization of several members of the Brotherhood Without Banners in his person without sacrificing their dynamics within the group.34

Shae and Tysha

The HBO adaptation very quickly diverged from the novels in the characterization of Shae, Tyrion’s paramour. While in the novels she was employed as a maid to the Crownlands nonentity Lollys Stokeworth before joining Tyrion‘s household, in the television series she is immediately attached to Sansa Stark, forming a genuine attachment for her vulnerable lady as well as her diminutive lord, driving deeper dramatic conflict after their marriage.

While she is indifferent to his marriage in the novels,35 Shae in the HBO canon vengefully betrays Tyrion in an act of passion, incriminating and humiliating him at his trial as a jilted lover.36 While Tyrion had related the horrific fate of his child-bride Tysha in the first season, his romance with Shae informs his passion as he murders her and his father in the fourth season finale.37 Since significant screen-time has been devoted to their tragic romance and the marked complexity of her adapted character, Shae represents a composite character successfully uniting problematic character motivation with an engaging narrative designed to intrigue fans of the novels in a dexterous manipulation of viewer expectations.

The Night’s Watch: Grenn, Alliser Thorne and Donal Noye

When Mance Rayder’s host mounts its assault on the gate, Castle Black is initially commanded by Donal Noye, the garrison’s one-armed smith. After coordinating the defense of Castle Black he died in the tunnel, repelling giant king Mag the Mighty.

“Noye’s sword was sunk deep in the giant’s throat, halfway to the hilt. The armourer had always seemed such a big man to Jon, but locked in the giant’s massive arms he looked almost like a child.”38

The HBO adaptation handles this skilfully by including his unheralded yet heroic last stand and assigning it to Grenn, one of Jon Snow’s earliest friends and companions on the Wall.39

Another of Jon’s friends, Pip, takes a fatal wound in the Magnar of Thenn’s attack while his antagonist Alliser Thorne initially commands the defense only to be wounded, with command defaulting to Jon. Both Grenn and Pip survived in the novels, only to marginalized from point-of-view characters as they are dispatched to rebuild abandoned Night’s Watch outposts by the new Lord Commander.40 Their dramatic deaths in battle heighten narrative tension while retaining the effect of increasing isolation on Jon Snow, and demonstrate a very effective example of composite character writing.

Jon Snow and Coldhands
Another example at the Wall is presented by the deletion of the mysterious and magical character Coldhands. In the novels, the mutineers that captured Craster’s Keep were reanimated as wights to pursue Sam and Gilly through the Haunted Forest, and they are rescued by a mysterious figure they refer to as Coldhands.

“’Brother!’ The shout cut through the night, through the shrieks of a thousand ravens. Beneath the trees, a man muffled head to heels in mottled blacks and greys sat astride an elk… Only when he grasped the offered hand did he realize the rider wore no glove. His hand was black and cold, with fingers hard as stone.”41

Within the HBO adaptation Jon commands a mission of rangers to execute the mutineers, intent on preserving the misinformation he delivered when living in the wildling host. Sam encounters a White Walker during the flight from Craster’s Keep instead of the retreat from the Fist of the First Men42.

Bran and his companions reach their destination, meeting the three-eyed raven without the assistance of Coldhands.43 Given the wild fan speculation about his identity, this was a well-reasoned decision for the adaptation to excise a distracting element of the narrative.

The Queen Across the Narrow Sea: Arstan Whitebeard, Daario Naharis, Strong Belwas

“’It is no matter,’ boomed Belwas. ‘We take all. The fat man hires three ships for his little silver hair queen.”44 

When Daenerys sails from Qarth in the novels it is after enduring frustration with the local merchant princes of the city rather than sacking their homes after a coup as in the HBO series. The novels instead offer a mysterious bearded stranger in Magister Illyrio’s service that is later revealed to be none other than Barristan the Bold, formerly Lord Commander of Robert Baratheon’s Kingsguard. In this instance the incognito convention of comedies and romances does not survive the process of adaptation, and Ser Barristan reveals himself to his prospective queen immediately after foiling an assassination attempt.45

“And unlike Ser Jorah, Daario, Brown Ben and her three blood riders, the eunuch did not lead troops, plan battles, or give her counsel.”46 

The reasoning as Daenerys permits Strong Belwas to accept a single combat at the siege of Mereen instead emerges from Daario Naharis’ mouth in the HBO adaptation, character development that establishes him as a gallant and intriguing love interest for a fan favourite.47

Conclusions

While this is examination of composite characters and abandoned storylines certainly is far from complete, patterns readily emerge. The first season of Game of Thrones was incredibly faithful to the novels, and while Ned Stark’s fever dreams and flashback sequences were discarded in the HBO this has been consistent throughout the series. Jaime’s guilt-ridden dreams of Rhaegar Targaryen and the Kingsguard is dispensed with in favour of expositional dialogue, and flashbacks have never been utilized in the series. Dream sequences are reserved for Bran, likewise for the wolf dreams that Arya shares with Nymeria in the novels. The second season and its corresponding source material introduced new point-of-view characters, and the adaptations to their network of families and allies are reduced for the screen, in many cases offering the development of relationships between characters and actors, as is the case with characters from the Wall or Dragonstone. However, the HBO adaptation is shrewd when condensing characters with limited storylines. The Brotherhood without Banners is filled by composite characters played by talented and memorable actors rather than a dozen minor recurring characters reduced to extras. Finally, the challenge of adapting the third, fourth and fifth novels of A Song of Ice and Fire necessitated multiple seasons that have yet to produce evidence that a number of plotlines have been conclusively abandoned. Regardless, the HBO series is an admirable model for adaptation, in many cases astoundingly effective when embellishing on the source material and exercising impressive restraint in writing composite characters and abandoning storylines.

1 “Fire and Blood.” Disc 5, Game of Thrones the Complete First Season. DVD, directed by David Benioff and D.B. Weiss (2011; HBO: 2012).
2 “The Blackwater.” Disc 5, Game of Thrones the Complete Second Season. DVD, directed by David Benioff and D.B. Weiss (2012; HBO: 2013).
3 George R. R. Martin, A Clash of Kings (New York: Bantam Books, 2000), 869.
4 Martin, A Clash of Kings, 19.
5 Martin, A Clash of Kings, 906.
6 “The Climb.” Disc 3, Game of Thrones the Complete Third Season. DVD, directed by David Benioff and D.B. Weiss (2013; HBO: 2014).
7 “Second Sons.” Disc 4, Game of Thrones the Complete Third Season.
8 George R. R. Martin, A Game of Thrones (New York: Bantam Books, 1997), 424.
9 George R. R. Martin, A Storm of Swords (New York: Bantam Books, 2002), 341.
10 “Baelor.” Disc 5, Game of Thrones the Complete First Season.
11 Martin, A Clash of Kings, 74.
12 Martin, A Clash of Kings, 435.
13 Martin, A Clash of Kings, 525.
14 Martin, A Clash of Kings, 542.
15 Martin, A Clash of Kings, 537.
16 “The Ghost of Harrenhal.” Disc 3, Game of Thrones the Complete Second Season.
17 “A Man Without Honour.” Disc 4, Game of Thrones the Complete Second Season.
18 Martin, A Clash of Kings, 692.
19 “Mockingbird.” Disc 3.Game of Thrones the Complete Fourth Season. DVD, directed by David Benioff and D. B. Weiss, (2014; HBO: 2015).
20 “First of His Name.” Disc 3, Game of Thrones the Complete Fourth Season.
21 “The Bear and the Maiden Fair.” Disc 4, Game of Thrones the Complete Third Season.
22 “Valar Morghulis.” Disc 5, Game of Thrones the Complete Fourth Season.
23 Martin, A Clash of Kings, 611.
24 Martin, A Clash of Kings, 821.
25 Martin, A Storm of Swords, 351.
26 Martin, Storm of Swords, 732.
27 “Breaker of Chains.” Disc 2, Game of Thrones the Complete Fourth Season.
28 “Mhysa.” Disc 4, Game of Thrones the Complete Third Season.
29 Martin, A Clash of Kings, 605.
30 “Mhysa.” Disc 4, Game of Thrones the Complete Third Season.
31 Martin, A Storm of Swords, 593.
32 “The Climb.” Disc 3. Game of Thrones the Complete Third Season.
33 Martin, A Storm of Swords, 175.
34 “Dark Wings, Dark Words.” Disc 1, Game of Thrones the Complete Third Season.
35 Martin, A Storm of Swords, 428.
36 “The Laws of Gods and Men.” Disc. 3. Game of Thrones the Complete Fourth Season.
37 Martin, A Clash of Kings, 936.
38 Martin, A Storm of Swords, 881.
39 “The Watchers on the Wall” Disc 5, Game of Thrones the Complete Fourth Season.
40 George R. R. Martin, A Dance with Dragons(New York: Bantam Books, 2011), 147.
41 Martin, A Storm of Swords, 647.
42 “Second Sons.” Disc 4, Game of Thrones the Complete Third Season.
43 “The Children.” Disc 5. Game of Thrones the Complete Fourth Season.
44 Martin, A Clash of Kings, 884.
45 “Valar Dohaeris.” Disc 1, Game of Thrones the Complete Third Season.
46 Martin, A Storm of Swords, 777.
47 “Breaker of Chains.” Disc 2, Game of Thrones the Complete Fourth Season.

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Pate Cressen. “Game of Thrones (S03E01) – Robb Stark arrives at Harrenhal.” Youtube video, 3:11. April 6, 2015. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_iyX8Ip2Xo4.

Pate Cressen. “Game of Thrones (S03E06) – Tywin and Lady Olenna discuss the Cersei- Loras wedding.” Youtube video, 3:45. April 6, 2015. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V-I4O2UdTGQ.

Pate Cressen. “Game of Thrones (S03E07) – Jaime saves Brienne from the Bear Pit.” Youtube video, 4:04. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZUt6tpA2v-8.

Testchan555. “Game of Thrones S03E10 – Lord Varys and Shae have a chat.” Youtube video, 2:55. April 6, 2015. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8f7ncYR3rl8.

Testchan555. “Game of Thrones S03E10 – Ser Davos rescues Gendry.” Youtube video, 1:30. April 6, 2015.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IQy8b9_uOGo.

TheCell8. “Davos Seaworth and Gendry: two boys from flea bottom.” Youtube video, 3:21. April 6, 2015. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rfquGkw7IC4.

Tuffy. “Daenerys Targaryen meets Barristan Selmy Game of thrones Season 3 Episode 1 Moment.” Youtube video, 1:06. April 6, 2015. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xDdsK4O9BjU.

Werthead. “Lyanna’s Statue.“ Gameofthrones.wikia.com. April 6, 2015. http://img1.wikia.nocookie.net/__cb20110320132405/gameofthrones/images/3/38 /Lyanna’s_statue.jpg.

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